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Pakistan (Urdu: پاكِستان‎), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكِستان‎), is a sovereign country in South Asia. With a population exceeding 180 million people, it is the sixth most populous country in the world. Located at the crossroads of the strategically important regions of South Asia, Central Asia and Western Asia, Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west and north, Iran to the southwest and China in the far northeast. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, and also shares a marine border with Oman.
The territory of modern Pakistan was home to several ancient cultures, including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and has undergone invasions or settlements by Hindu, Persian, Indo-Greek, Islamic, Turco-Mongol, Afghan and Sikh cultures. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and the British Empire. As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and India's struggle for independence, Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent nation for Muslims from the regions in the east and west of India where there was a Muslim majority. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a new constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. A civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.
Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of four provinces and four federal territories. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similar variation in its geography and wildlife. A regional and middle power,Pakistan has the seventh largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear weapons state, being the only nation in the Muslim world, and the second in South Asia, to have that status. It has a semi-industrialised economy which is the 27th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and 47th largest in terms of nominal GDP.
Pakistan's post-independence history has been characterised by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with neighbouring India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including terrorism, poverty, illiteracy and corruption. It is a founding member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) and is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Next Eleven Economies, SAARC, ECO, D8 and the G20 developing nations.

Islamic Republic of Pakistan
اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكِستان (Urdu)
Islāmī Jumhūrī-ye Pākistān
Flag Emblem
Motto: ایمان ، اتحاد ، تنظیم (Urdu)
Iman, Ittehad, Tanzeem
"Faith, Unity, Discipline"
Anthem: Qaumī Tarāna

Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory shown in light green.
Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory shown in light green.
                                            Capital: Islamabad
           Largest city: Karachi
Official languages:
  • English
  • Urdu
Recognised regional languages
  • Punjabi
  • Sindhi
  • Pashto
  • Balochi
  • Saraiki
  • Hindko
  • Brahui

 -  Conception of Pakistan 29 December 1930 
 -  Pakistan Declaration 28 January 1933 
 -  Pakistan (Lahore) Resolution 23 March 1940 
 -  Independence (from the
United Kingdom)
14 August 1947 
 -  Islamic Republic established 23 March 1956 
 -  Total 796,095 km2 [a](36th)
307,374 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 3.1
 -  2012 estimate 180,440,005(6th)
 -  Density 226.6/km2 (55th)
555/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $488.580 billion
 -  Per capita $2,787
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $210.566 billion
 -  Per capita $1,201
Gini (2005) 31.2 (medium)
HDI (2011)  0.504 (low / 145th)
Currency Pakistani Rupee (Rs.) (PKR)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
 -  Summer (DST) PDT (UTC+6b)
Drives on the left
Calling code +92
ISO 3166 code PK
Internet TLD .pk


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